The term "shungite" was originally used in 1879 to describe a mineraloid with more than 98 percent carbon. More recently the term has also been used to describe shungite-bearing rocks, leading to some confusion. Shungite-bearing rocks have also been classified purely on their carbon content, with Shungite-1 having a carbon content in the range 98-100 weight percent and Shungite-2, -3, -4 and -5 having contents in the ranges 35-80 percent, 20-35 percent, 10-20 percent and less than 10 percent, respectively. In a further classification, shungite is subdivided into bright, semi-bright, semi-dull and dull on the basis of their luster (the terms lustrous and matte are also used for bright and dull).

Vermiculite

Vermiculite is a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral. It undergoes significant expansion when heated. Exfoliation occurs when the mineral is heated sufficiently, and the effect is routinely produced in commercial furnaces. Vermiculite is formed by weathering or hydrothermal alteration of biotite or phlogopite. Large commercial vermiculite mines currently exist in Russia, South Africa, China, and Brazil.

Bentonite

Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. It was named by Wilbur C. Knight in 1898 after the Cretaceous Benton Shale near Rock River, Wyoming.

 

The different types of bentonite are each named after the respective dominant element, such as potassium (K), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and aluminium (Al). Experts debate a number of nomenclatorial problems with the classification of bentonite clays. Bentonite usually forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water. However, the term bentonite, as well as a similar clay called tonstein, has been used to describe clay beds of uncertain origin. For industrial purposes, two main classes of bentonite exist: sodium and calcium bentonite. In stratigraphy and tephrochronology, completely devitrified (weathered volcanic glass) ash-fall beds are commonly referred to as K-bentonites when the dominant clay species is illite. In addition to montmorillonite and illite another common clay species that is sometimes dominant is kaolinite. Kaolinite-dominated clays are commonly referred to as tonsteins and are typically associated with coal.

Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts. The term zeolite was originally coined in 1756 by Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who observed that rapidly heating the material, believed to have been stilbite, produced large amounts of steam from water that had been adsorbed by the material. Based on this, he called the material zeolite, from the Greek ζέω (zéō), meaning "to boil" and λίθος (líthos), meaning "stone".  The classic reference for the field has been Zeolite molecular sieves: structure, chemistry, and use by Donald W. Breck.

 

Zeolites occur naturally but are also produced industrially on a large scale. As of September 2016, 232 unique zeolite frameworks have been identified, and over 40 naturally occurring zeolite frameworks are known.  Every new zeolite structure that is obtained has to be approved by the International Zeolite Association Structure Commission and receives a three letter designation.

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